Monday, February 9, 2009


1. What are the three basic elements of a camera? an optical element (the lens), a chemical element (the film) and a mechanical element (the camera body itself)
2. What is an SLR camera? camera uses an automatic moving mirror system which permits the photographer to see exactly what will be captured
3. What is the purpose of a camera's aperture? the aperture controls the amount of light that reaches a digital camera sensor. An aperture acts much like the pupil of an eye that opens wider as light decreases to let in more available light.
4. What does shutter speed on a camera control? it performs the tasks of regulating the amount of light entering the camera and expose onto the film.
5. To get the right exposure for a picture, what three things must be balanced? Amount of light going into the camera, the light on the actual object and the right lense.
6. To take pictures outside on a very sunny day, would you use a high or low film speed? Why? Slow-speed film, such as 100- or 200-speed needs a large amount of available light to take a crisp, clear photo. These speeds are best used outdoors on bright sunny days. If there isn’t enough available light, your prints may turn out dark and blurry.
7. What are the four steps for developing black and white film?
1. Dilute the chemicals.
2. The Developer - 1:3 Chemical to water mix. That is, 1 part developer to 3 parts water..
3. The Stop Bath - 1:63 Chemical to water mix. Mix the stop bath and water together and store in a gallon jug. This is a working solution.
4. The Fixer - 1:4 Chemical to water mix. Mix the fixer and water together and store in a gallon jug. This is also a working solution.
5. Hypo-Clearing Agent
6. Once the chemicals have been mixed and stored in the gallon jugs, you need to bring them to the correct temperature.
7. Pop open the film canister, remove the film, load the film onto the film reel, and place the reel inside the developing tank.
8. Place the tools out in front of you, possibly on a desk.
9. Turn off the lights. Use the bottle opener to pop the bottom off the film canister, which should be very easy.
10. Spool the film onto the film reel. While not touching the surface of the negative, slide the negative into the opening of the reel.
11. Place the reel inside the developing tank, and screw the lid onto the tank.
12. Bring the developing tank to the sink where you have the chemical jugs floating in water. Check the developer chemical with the thermometer. If it's at 20 degrees Celsius, then you are ready to go
13. With stopwatch in hand, pour the working developer into the hole in the top of the developing tank
14. When the stopwatch has reached 5 minutes and 50 seconds, start pouring the developer out of the top of the tank and into the sink drain. Do not take the lid off the developing tank.
15. Again with stopwatch in hand, quickly pour the stop bath into the top of the developing tank until the tank is full.
16. When the stopwatch has reached 1 minute and 20 seconds, start pouring the stop bath out.
17. Again with stop watch in hand, pour the fixer into the top hole of the development tank until it is full. There is no need to dilute the fixer more, so you can pour straight from the gallon jug. Start the stopwatch once the tank is full. You are going to leave the film in the fixing solution for 6 1/2 minutes. Smack the tank against the counter to dislodge any bubbles. Agitate the film for 3 seconds every 30 seconds. Some people don't agitate during the fixing process.
18. Once the stopwatch has reached 6 minutes and 20 seconds, pour the fixer out of the tank.
19. Pour the hypo-clearing agent into the tank (with the lid off).
20. While the film is in the hypo-clearing agent, start running some water and bring the running water to 20 degrees Celsius. After 1 1/2 minutes, dump out the hypo-clearing agent.
21. After the 10 minutes is up, lift the film reel out of the tank and lightly shake off any remaining water. Turn the reel clockwise (could be counter-clockwise, depends on how you're holding the reel, so try them both) until the top half of the reel comes apart from the lower half of the reel. Now use one of the film clips and clip it onto the end of the film negative.
22. That's it! You're all done. You can now take the negatives to a store and have prints made, make your own prints, or scan the negatives and order prints online.

8. What things are needed to make a black and white print? # Drying Cabinets
# Tongs
# Stop Bath
# Developers
# Exposed Photographic Print Papers
# Fixer
# Developer Trays
# Washes
9. For a black and white print, the final image is actually what material? Developed silver.

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